An example of a custom essay on global warming.
One of the most significant impacts on the biosphere and its subsystems associated with the anthropogenic activity is global warming. It is manifested in climate change and biota: the production process in ecosystems, the shift of the boundaries of plant formations, the change in crop yields.
These impacts are of particular importance for the high and medium latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. These regions are one of the main sources and at the same time objects of similar impacts. Get help from the best college paper writing service. Here, global warming will be especially pronounced: according to calculations, the temperature of the atmosphere will increase most significantly in the high and middle latitudes.
In addition, the nature of high latitudes is particularly susceptible to various influences and is extremely slowly restored.
On the other hand, processes in the Arctic can have a significant impact on global change. These are, for example, the dynamics and optical properties of snow and ice, the participation of permafrost in biogeochemical cycles, and so on.
Assessment of the role of the Arctic in the formation of global changes should take into account the interactions of the following factors: biota and the global cycle of carbon dioxide, hydrological regime, permafrost, snow cover and glaciers, coastal processes, ocean circulation and bottom water structure, dynamics, heat balance and composition of the atmosphere, solar and geomagnetic effects. All of this testifies to the importance of mathematical modeling of the climate and large-scale processes in the ecosystems of high and medium latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
We will try to talk about the modeling of natural processes, based on the development and modification of a system of various mathematical models.
MODELING CLIMATE CHANGE
In recent decades, various models have been created, with the help of which it is possible to assess the effect on the climate of changes in the composition of the atmosphere. It helped to understand the mechanisms of the forthcoming climate change. For calculations in such models, it is necessary to calculate the transfer of solar and thermal (long-wavelength) radiation in the atmosphere with different ratios of its components.
In addition, it is required to describe the energy exchange between the radiation-active turbulent atmosphere and the inhomogeneous surfaces of land, ocean, and the cryosphere. The system of interacting elements is very complex, and so far there are no models that could completely take into account the whole set of natural transport processes in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth. There are relatively simple and more complex models. The most complex are the climatic models that take into account the general circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean. In addition, models that reflect the evolution of sea ice and various processes on land (formation and change of the snow cover, moisture content in the soil and its evaporation by vegetation) are needed.
The climate model developed at the Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences includes a block describing processes in the atmosphere with a spatial resolution of 4 x 5 ° and an ocean block representing an integrated model of the active layer of the ocean with a given flow distribution. The model satisfactorily describes the main seasonal and geographical characteristics of the global climate.
In this model, in particular, the altitude distributions of changes in air temperature near the Earth’s surface are calculated with a doubling of the CO2 content in the atmosphere. The maximum warming will be 4 ° C, it will be more severe over the continents, but the most will be manifested in winter in Asia. This is due to the inevitable shift of the snow cover to the north. The change in the amount of precipitation has a “patchy” structure. The increase in the amount of precipitation is due to a more intensive evaporation from the surface of the ocean and subsequent precipitation on land. However, there are areas where precipitation will be less.
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